1. THE NOTION of LEXICAL TRANSFORMATIONS. 10
1.1. Translation Theory: Object and Objectives. 10
1.2. Equivalence of Translation. 13
2. LEXICAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN TRANSLATION.. 17
2.1. Lexical Transformations and Methods of Creation of Contextual Substitutes. 17
2.2. The Lexico-grammatical Problems of Transformation. 22
2.3. Analysis of “Louise” by Somerset Maugham.. 25
2.2. The Lexico-grammatical Problems of Transformation.
The vocabulary of any language is so large and heterogeneous that not any translator, not even the native speaker can know all the words and distinguishes all their meanings. A vague knowledge of the text, the deep meaning hidden under the surface structure obliges the translator to be in constant contact with dictionaries, because they do translators in estimate service in understanding the text more clearly.
The right choice of the word for a complete transformation of the meaning of the word in the text is one of the complicated objectives in the translation process. The difficulty of this task is conditioned by the complex nature of the word and its versatile and semantic value. The word as a lexical unit in English and Russian languages don’t always coincide. Too often one word may correspond a composite word or a whole word combination of English. For example: “карусель – merry-go-round” or may happen vice-versa. Another example: “to stare – пристально смотреть”.
As it’s generally known the word expresses the notion of a substance or the phenomenon of the reality, the whole complex of forms and meaning. There are a logical meaning, an emotional meaning and the named meaning. Very often even English monosemantic word doesn’t coincide with the usage of the Russian words and as the result it’s translated into Russian by different words. For example: “a young child – маленький ребёнок; a young man ––человек; a young criminal –неопытный преступник; the night was young – ночь ещё только наступила.”
In searching for the necessary word translator applies usually synonymic role in the native language. For example: She was very brave about it.
The first two meanings of this word don’t evidently fit the present case. Therefore, every translator is up to select and enlarges number of synonyms. The meaning of the word “brave” is likely corresponds to. – Она очень мужественно перенесла это.”
While choosing the word out of synonymic role, it’s necessary to take into account not only the shades of the meaning, but also degree of intensity of meaning. The translator should always apply to the context to uncover the meaning of the word and suggest adequate translation in the process.
As we have very few absolute synonyms in the language that raise special objectives for a translator. Apart from that the synonyms are not always interchangeable: they are sometimes quite non-suitable. As we mentioned above the synonyms differ by their shade of meaning, degree of intensity, emotion coloring and affiliation to various layers of the dictionary. The English language is extremely reach in synonyms and as we know synonyms are used for strengthening the utterance and avoid any repetition.
Though identical in some cases the grammatical phenomena of any languages connected and conditioned by the laws of its development differ mostly from those of other languages which evoke certain difficulties in the process of translation both in the fields of morphology and syntax.
It is clear that the aim of translation is not to give a precise reproduction of the grammatical forms of the original. The aim is to convey the sense of original where the planes of expression of the Source Language (SL) and the Target Language (TL) do not formally coincide at all. Grammatical forms play an important role when they fulfill a certain stylistic function. Brevity, parallel arrangement and others directly or indirectly influence the sense or aesthetic aspect of the original, then the translator is obliged to seek for analogical means in the TL in order to achieve adequacy. Disparity between the structure of the source and target languages require grammatical and very often lexical transformations. The disparity in the grammatical structures of the English and Russian languages may be complete or partial. Complete non-coincidence is observed when a certain grammatical category of one language is absent in the other, for example, gerund is a category inherent to English, but there are also cases when a category is present in both languages, but they do not fully coincide in content or another example, the category of number which is present in both of them, but the use of singular and plural do not always coincide. For example: “To prevent a thermonuclear war should be the supreme duty of every person of goodwill. –Не допускать развязывания термоядерной войны – первейшая обязанность всех людей доброй воли.”...