CHAPTER 1. THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SOME PECULIARITIES OF PERSONAL NAMES’ TRANSLATION.. 6
1.1 The definition of the term “translation”. 6
1.2 The use of various translational transformations. 10
1.3 Definition and Classification of Proper Names. 12
1.4 Translation of Proper Names. 16
CHAPTER 2. PROPER NAMES IN TRANSLATION OF FICTION (ON THE MATERIAL OF TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH OF THE HISTORY OF A TOWN BY M.E. SALTYKOV-SHCHEDRIN) 20
CHAPTER 1. THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SOME PECULIARITIES OF PERSONAL NAMES’ TRANSLATION
1.1 The definition of the term “translation”
... At an analysis stage of the statement of the original the translator passes a way from below upwards (from signs up to the purpose of the communications, consistently finding out all levels of the maintenance). At a stage of synthesis of the statement language of translation «the translator passes all hierarchy of levels in the returnable order, consistently checking, whether defines unequivocally each level of the maintenancea final variant of translation» [5, p. 69]. If it appears, that any level demands the obligatory use of the certain forms, the translator selects a variant language of translation, so to say, irrespective of the original.
Nevertheless we count, that in some cases this theory can be not absolutely expedient. The purpose of the use of the reduced lexicon, as usual, is statements of the negative attitude of the sender to the addressee or its prompting to any actions which in itself does not represent a problem for judgement. All we need is only as much as possible adequately to choose the lexical form of transfer of this purpose in the text of translation. Taking into account that in that case this problem has semantic character more likely, we count what to achieve it is possible, having executed not such difficult translational transformations. For example, application of translational lexical changes of the general type can be effective enough in that case.
So, as it is seen, while translating informal lexicon it is possible to apply both linguistic, and communicative methods of translation, but it is necessary to use the most rational methods. If on equal judgments of the purpose of the statement there are no problems, we count not obligatory application of such difficult methods, as a method of levels of equivalence. It is enough to apply simple translational receptions, for example, such, as the deputy. ...
1.3 Definition and Classification of Proper Names
... Having searched the definition in related literature we faced with the three problems and only one was solved, so we’ve tried to find the answer among the material presented in foreign sites and succeed a bit.first source which caught our attention was Babich who presented the problem very briefly and poor. He says:
“Proper names (or nouns) are capitalized in English. Here are some examples:of the week: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday: January, February, Marchof companies: Amazon, Coca Cola, Google, towns: England, Canada, San Francisco: The Grand Canyon, The Empire State Building, The Underground, films, prizes: the Bible, the Oscar, the Nobel Prizeof people: Tim Smith, Jennie Baker, Theodore Rooseveltpeople: Aristotle, Napoleon, Shakespeare” [11:56]to the lack of details and the general poverty of the so-called definition it almost cannot be considered as wrong. It also solves the two previous questions: now we can state that a proper name can include not only nouns (The Empire State Building), and contain more than one word according the example. Furthermore the article declares some kind of classification which includes our topic, the film’s titles. But the article arises two new questions. They are: why should one divide “names of people” and “famous people” [11:56], and if “proper names (or nouns) are capitalized in English”, why some of elements of them are not “the Nobel Prize”.first question is so doubtful, that falls into two sub questions: are famous people’s names like “Aristotle” not names or these persons are not people? What made the author to divide “names of people” and “famous people”? And the second sub question from what point should one be considered as famous, because Aristotle, Napoleon, Shakespeare lived long ago and David Cameron is our contemporary but he is still famous all over the world.we’ve answered our two questions but have get two more as well, that’s why we used another article from Arbekova’s book. ...
CHAPTER 2. PROPER NAMES IN TRANSLATION OF FICTION (ON THE MATERIAL OF TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH OF THE HISTORY OF A TOWN BY M.E. SALTYKOV-SHCHEDRIN)
... We can mention that the translation of names derived from common nouns and other parts of speech but suggesting no characteristics is considered irrelevant, although it lends some additional vividness to the target text.
We believe that exposing the inner form of some last names and consequently their significance was unnecessary, e.g. Ферапонтов—Servantov where a Greek stem was translated; or the translation of anthroponyms with common stems although these stems do not give any characteristics: Младенцев—Infantov, Байбаков—Dormousov (see sections E, K), translation of stems that derive from obsolete words: Возгрявый—Snotpuss, Боголепов—Deiformov. However that doesn't affect the style of the book.
As a peculiarity of this translation of The Story of a Town we can notice a very attentive sometimes even overzealous attitude in rendering common stems of proper names, unlike most other translations where charactonyms are usually transcribed. Sometimes the inner form of proper names is translated even where it is unnecessary. However we note a high quality of the translation on the whole and the interpretation of the system of proper names, the skill in finding the necessary characterizing information in the names, conveying M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin's intention. S. Brownsberger skillfully dealt with the ways of rendering of proper names depending on their significance and stylistic load. She managed to render the variety of names in the book and chose the proper way of translating in almost every separate case. ...
- Crystal D. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language / David Crystal. - Cambridge University Press, 1995. - 869 p.
- Fernandes L. Translation of Names in Children’s Fantasy Literature: Bringing the Young Reader into Play / L. Fernandes. - Pуs-Graduaзгo em Estudos da Traduзгo, Brazil, 2006. - 273 p.
- Kiviniemi, F. R. Semantics. A new outline / F. R. Kiviniemi. - Cambridge University Press, 1982. - 425 p.
- Matthews B. Semantics: a coursebook / B. Matthews. - Cambridge University Press, 1997. - 285 p.
- Nida E. Componential Analysis of Meaning / E. Nida. - Mouton, 1975. - 246 p.
- Абдурахманова, Х. И. Инглиз Тили Таржима Назарияси / Х. И. Абдурахманова. - Ташкент, 2005. - 189 с.