Курсовая работа: The problems of literary translation

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1.1. Translation and its aims. 5

1.2 Translation development as a science. 9



2.1 Analysis of  B. Zahoder’s Ways of Translating A.Miln’s Book “Winnie-the-Pooh”  20

2.2 Contrastive Analysis of two Translations of A. Miln’s Book “Winnie-the-Pooh”  26






1.1. Translation and its aims


...  Process of translational activity according to the given theory occurs the following grade. At an analysis stage of the statement of the original the translator passes a way from below upwards (from signs up to the purpose of the communications, consistently finding out all levels of the maintenance). At a stage of synthesis of the statement language of translation «the translator passes all hierarchy of levels in the returnable order, consistently checking, whether defines unequivocally each level of the maintenancea final variant of translation» [5, p. 69]. If it appears, that any level demands the obligatory use of the certain forms, the translator selects a variant language of translation, so to say, irrespective of the original.


Nevertheless we count, that in some cases this theory can be not absolutely expedient. The purpose of the use of the reduced lexicon, as usual, is statements of the negative attitude of the sender to the addressee or its prompting to any actions which in itself does not represent a problem for judgement. All we need is only as much as possible adequately to choose the lexical form of transfer of this purpose in the text of translation. Taking into account that in that case this problem has semantic character more likely, we count what to achieve it is possible, having executed not such difficult translational transformations. For example, application of translational lexical changes of the general type can be effective enough in that case.


So, as it is seen, while translating informal lexicon it is possible to apply both linguistic, and communicative methods of translation, but it is necessary to use the most rational methods. If on equal judgments of the purpose of the statement there are no problems, we count not obligatory application of such difficult methods, as a method of levels of equivalence. It is enough to apply simple translational receptions, for example, such, as the deputy. ...



2.1 Analysis of  B. Zahoder’s Ways of Translating A.Miln’s Book “Winnie-the-Pooh”



E.g.: “Roo’s fallen in!” cried Rabbit
  Ру упал в воду!



Russian variant will be impossible without the noun.


Generalization of the word means that the word from the ST is substituted by the word with generic meaning in the TT. For instance, He comes over and visits me practically every weekend. - Он часто ко мне ездит, почти каждую неделю. As the matter of fact B. Zahoder does not often use this kind of Lexical Substitution.

E.g.: Stoutness Exercises
  Утренняя зарядка


Further in the context the translator interprets the idea: Надо вам сказать, что Вини-Пух очень хотел похудеть и потому старательно занимался гимнастикой.


Substitution based on cause-effect relations (when cause is substituted by effect or vice versa).




E.g.: Balancing on three legs he began to bring his leg very cautiously up to his ear.
  С трудом держась на ногах, Иа стал осторожно поднимать четвертую ногу к уху.


To balance means “to put your body or something else into a position where it is steady and does not fall: How long can you balance on one leg?” So, in the Zahoder’s translation cause is substituted by effect. He writes “с трудом держась” because the effect of balancing is rather a complicated action therefore it is being done with certain difficulty. Perhaps, using this type of substitution Zahoder wants to emphasize that Eeyore in spite the difficult balancing on his three legs is eager to hear once again that he is going to receive his birthday present. If the translator had opted for the word “балансировать” he would have lost much. First, this word is not an authentically Russian one. Second, the Eeyore’s attitude would not have been rendered.  ...


2.2 Contrastive Analysis of two Translations of A. Miln’s Book “Winnie-the-Pooh”


... We did not discover something new in Linguistics and Translation Studies but we tried to make in-depth analysis of the material, to consider the problem from different points of view, to apply our knowledge of theory to practice. Stylistics is a prolific source for researches. Various Stylistic Devices are the result of the work of human imagination and it is endless. Every case of Stylistic Device is something new, fresh; it brings a new flavour to the text, a new colouring, and adds expressiveness. But even more interesting was making the contrastive analysis of the translations that gave us the possibility to reveal their stylistic peculiarities.


We have found out that the Style of the original text undergoes some transformations because it is impossible to mirror every stylistic device. However, in Chapter III we analyzed many cases of mere SD reflecting when the latter cannot be adjusted to stylistic means of the Russian language. It is undoubtedly considered a translator’s failure. (V. Veber) We sifted two translations through the typology of Stylistic Transformations which are characteristic of any translation. The results were the following. Typical Transformation of B. Zahoder’s translation is Stylistic Amplification (45%). It can be justified by the specific features of the Russian language to denote expressiveness.


Veber’s translation is full of literalism and the main characteristic feature of his translation is Stylistic Weakening (67%). Veber’s translation has proved that there cannot be direct correlation between all the stylistic elements of ST and TT.


Thus, we denied our working hypothesis that such correspondence is possible. We tried to understand some specific problems of Literary Translation. Without this understanding the analysis of Miln`s book translations would not be so productive: we tried to make a thorough analysis of three texts. Our future research may consider further analysis of the third “Winnie-the-Pooh” Russian translation done by V.Rudnev, which is completely different from the previous two, because it is based on post-modernistic interpretation of A.Miln`s Book.  ...