The article is devoted to investigation of the category of aspect in Kazakh language. The historical development of Kazakh aspect is presented in this research.
The peculiarities, differences and common features of Kazakh aspect in Old, Middle, Modern Kazakh language periods were analyzed.
Keywords: verb, category of aspect; continuous aspect; Old Kazakh, Middle and Modern Kazakh Language Periods; process; modification of an action; tense; internal structure; peculiarities (states) of the action.
Materials and methods. The main sources of the article are the works of Mamanov I.M., Kordabayev T.R., Oralbayeva N.O., Akhmetzhanova Z.K.
The diachronic, semantic, comparative methods were used.
The research is concerned with the history of Kazakh verb aspect in different Kazakh language period.
The verb is one of the main parts of speech. It is the only part of speech in present-day that has a series of categories, analytical forms, and again the only one that has forms which occupy a peculiar position in its system and do not share some of the characteristic features of the part of speech as a whole.
In analysing the morphological structure of the Kazakh verb it is essential to distinguish peculiar features of the aspect in the morphology and its syntactic features in sentences.
Admittedly, aspect denotes different kind of peculiarities (states) of the action. In everyday life a human being make several different actions. Some actions can pass for a long time; some of them can pass immediately and so on. Types of actions depend on intention of human beings and situations what kind of type of actions should be chosen.
At the same time aspect is a functional category and the form of the verb which serves to express the manner in which the action is performed: it shows whether it is a single accomplished action, a recurrent action or a continuous process. It often expresses the speaker’s or writer’s attitude toward a happening.
There are a number of theories which define aspect differently and determine its place in Kazakh grammar in different way. It would be very appropriate to mention from the very beginning that there is no unanimous opinion about the classification and division of the forms of the category of aspect in Kazakh language. The forms and classifications suggested by many linguists differ very much and sometimes are quite contrary to each other.
In Old Kazakh grammar period Kazakh linguists made a historical investigation based on the Kyrgyz historical grammar [1; 25]. Because that time till the October revolution Kazakh language was not fully studied with grammarians. That’s why in Old period Kazakh language in Turkic science was not called as a Kazakh language, it is called as a “Kyrgyz” and was known as a “Kazakh-Kyrgyz language”.
Kazakh grammarian T.R.Kordabayev, in his book “Kazirgi kazak tilindegi etistiktin shak kategoriasy” (Tense category in Modern Kazakh language) considers that the category of Tense had not been analyzed, remained unexplored in Old Period [1; 24]. According to him there were a lot of authors that considered the Kazakh language was temporal than aspectual, referring to the works of M.Terentev and N.Sazantov.