1. Read the text and complete the sentences (1–5).
1) Deforestation leads to_____. 2) Deforestation results in _____. 3) Oxygen on the Earth is produced_____. 4) Erosion of the soil is one of many results _____. 5) Humidity, air temperature, soil temperatures change _____.
THE CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION
Deforestation has significant consequences. The forests fix soil to the earth; when the trees are removed, the soil blows away or is removed by rains. This erosion of the soil makes the area useless for farming; clogs up local water-courses, to the extent of silting up major canals and damps; and leads to floods in the rainy season, as the soil is no longer able to retain the rains in sufficiently large quantities. In extreme cases, the deforested area will become a desert.
Forests absorb more of the sun’s energy than open land: deforestation can disrupt local weather patterns by warming air that was previously kept cool. Deforested zones experience greater fluctuations in air and soil temperature than the forest that they have replaced. Humidity is another factor that is altered.
The impact of forests on world climate is still largely unknown, although research is urgently necessary. The widely-held area that trees are the ‘green lungs’ of the planet, producing the world’s oxygen , is, accourding to current knowledge, a myth, as the world contains much larger oxygen sources. There is a possibility, however, that the disappearance of trees over large areas may increase carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere.
2. Read the text and decide whether the statements (1–10) are True (T) or False (F).
1) There is no permanent staff in British theatres. 2) There are two kinds of seats: bookable and unbookable. 3) The first theatre in England “The Blackfries” was built in 1776. 4) The first “Covent Garden theatre” was built in 1782. 5) The first “Covent Garden theatre” was burnt forever. 6) In ancient times plays were acted outside churches. 7) “Covent Garden” used to be a fashionable promenade. 8) Since the middle of the last century "Covent Garden” became an opera house. 9) Now “Covent Garden” is an unknown opera house. 10) “Covent Garden” is open for 12 months of the year.
Until recently the history of the English theatre has been build around actors rather than companies. It was hard to find any London theatre that even had a consistent policy. There is no permanent staff in British theatres. A play is rehearsed for a few weeks by a company of actors working together mostly for the first time and it is allowed to run as long as it draws the odious and pays its way.
Another peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is as follows: there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked in advance(bookable), and unbookable ones have no numbers and the spectators occupy them on the principle: first come – first served. In ancient times plays were acted inside churches and later on the market places.
The first theatre in England “The Black fries” was built in 1576, and “The Globe”, which is closely connected with William Shakespeare, was built in 1599. Speaking about our times we should first of all mention “The English National Theatre”, “The Royal Shakespeare Company” and “Covent Garden”.
“Covent Garden” used to be a fashionable promenade – it was, before then, a convent garden – but when it became overrun with flower-sellers, orange-vendors and vegetable-growers, the people moved to more exclusive surroundings farther west, such as “St. James’s Square”.
The first “Covent Garden theatre” was built in 1732. It was burnt down in 1808 and rebuilt exactly a year after. It opened in September1809, with Shakespeare’s “Macbeth”. Since the middle of the last century “Covent Garden” became exclusively devoted to opera.
Now “Covent Garden” is busier than ever, it is one of the few wellknown opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it employs over 600 people from both the Opera Company and the Royal Ballet.
VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR
3. Choose the correct item A, B, C or D.
1) Land _____has many causes.
A. pollution B. polluted C. polluting D. pollute
2) Dolphins have got a grey_____.
A. fur B. feathers C. skin D. whiskers
3) The car _____ yesterday.
A. was sold B. has been sold C. had been sold D. sells
4) The fence _____yet.
A. was painted B. has not been painted C. had been painted D. paints
5) The novel was written _____Thackeray in the 19th century.
A. by B. with C. off D. at
6) The most_____ part of the show was the clowns.
A. amusing B. boring C. scary D. ugly
7) I had been told that the conductor was the best in the world, but I had a terribly _____ evening.
A. boring B. funny C. romantic D. exciting
8) Usually people _____ explain why they act on superstitions.
A. must not B. might not C. cannot D. not
9) A general name for wheat, maize and barley is _____.
A. vegetables B. cereals C. porridge D. fruit
10) The process of extracting different materials from the ground is called _____. A. mining B. harvesting C. farming D. burning
4. Translate the sentences from English into Russian.
1) Ozone is a minor constituent of the earth’s atmosphere, found in varying concentrations between sea level and a height of some 60 km.
2) Ozone in the atmosphere is broken down when it absorbs UV-B radiation. This natural process can be disrupted by the presence of pollutants.
3) In 1982 British Antarctic Survey scientists detected a fall in ozone concentrations above the southern ice cap.
4) The Arctic expedition discovered that large quantities of chlorine monoxide were found in the Arctic lower stratosphere.
5) Nowadays, most of the new refrigerators and air-conditioning systems use a more ozone-friendly gas.
6) The sixth and seventh media, Internet and mobile phones, are often referred to collectively as digital media; and the fourth and fifth, radio and TV, as broadcast media.
7) Some argue that video games have developed into a distinct mass form of media.
8) In its most basic form, stagecraft is managed by a single person (often the stage manager of a smaller production) who arranges all scenery, costumes, lighting, and sound, and organizes the cast.
9) At a more professional level, for example modern Broadway houses, stagecraft is managed by hundreds of skilled carpenters, painters, electricians, stagehands, and the like.
10) This modern form of stagecraft is highly technical and specialized: it comprises many sub-disciplines and a vast trove of history and tradition.
5. Write a for-and-against essay on the issue of using nuclear power energy. Write not less than 200 words.