CHAPTER I DEFINITION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS......... 5
1.1 Structure and classification of phraseological units......... 5
1.2 Typology of phraseological units in English......... 15
CHAPTER II PECULIARITIES OF TRANSLATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS IN BUSINESS ENGLISH......... 40
2.1 Translation of phraseological units from English into Russian......... 40
2.2 The peculiarities of translation of phraseological units in the business world......... 43
The problem being researched in this paper is of great importance for many reasons:
First of all it is generally known that the role of English phraseological units has increased dramatically in recent years. It is reflected in the spate of dictionaries and practice books devoted to them which have recently appeared inBritain, especially it refers to so called phrasal verbs which play an integral role in Modern English.
The famous English scientist in the field of lexicology Logan Pearsall Smith said the following: “We have also in English a curious kind of compound verbs. In this kind of formation the 19th century was especially rich and gave birth to such modern expressions as to boil down, to go under, to run across. Verbs of this type are often colloquial, add an idiomatic power to the language, and enable it express many fine distinctions of thoughts and meaning”. [1, p.36 ]
Definition of phraseological units
1.1 Structure and classification of phraseological units
The vocabulary of a language is enriched not only by words but also by phraseological units. Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech; they exist in the language as ready-made units. They are compiled in special dictionaries. The same as words phraseological units express a single notion and are used in a sentence as one part of it. American and British lexicographers call such units «idioms». We can mention such dictionaries as: L.Smith «Words and Idioms», V.Collins «A Book of English Idioms» etc. In these dictionaries we can find words, peculiar in their semantics (idiomatic), side by side with word-groups and sentences. In these dictionaries they are arranged, as a rule, into different semantic groups [3, p.136 ].
<...> A.I. Smirnitsky was the first among Russian scholars who paid attention to sentences that can be treated as complete formulas, such as How do you do? Or I beg you pardon; It takes all kinds to make the world; Can the leopard change his spots? They differ from all the combinations so far discussed because they are not equivalent to words in distribution and are semantically analysable. The formulas discussed by N. N. Amosova are on the contrary semantically specific, e.g. save your breath ‘shut up’or tell it to the marines (one of the suggested origins is tell that to the horse marines; such a corps being non-existent, as marines are sea-going force, the last expression means ‘tell it to someone who does not exist because rel people will not believe it’) very often such formulas, formally identical to sentences, are in reality used only as insertions into other sentences: the cap fits ‘the statement is true’ (e.g. “He called me a liar.”- “Well, you should know if the cup fits.”).
1.2 Typology of phraseological units in English
Difference in terminology (“set-phrases”, “idioms” and “word-equivalents” ) reflects certain differences in the main criteria used to distinguish types of phraseological units and free word-groups. The term “set phrase” implies that the basic criterion of differentiation is stability of the lexical components and grammatical structure of word-groups.
There is a certain divergence of opinion as to the essential features of phraseological units as distinguished from other word-groups and the nature of phrases that can be properly termed “phraseological units”. The habitual terms “set-phrases”, “idioms”, “word-equivalents” are sometimes treated differently by different linguists. However these terms reflect to certain extend the main debatable points of phraseology which centre in the divergent views concerning the nature and essential features of phraseological units as distinguished from the so-called free word-groups [11, p. 100].
The deliberate omission of one or more words in the sentence for definite stylistic purpose is called the stylistic device of ellipsis.
The omission of some parts of the sentence is an ordinary and typical feature of the oral type of speech. In belle-letters style the peculiarities of the structure of the oral type of speech are partially reflected in the speech of characters (for example, the informal and careless character of speech).
Some parts of the sentence may be omitted due to the excitement of the speaker.
The stylistic device of ellipsis is sometimes used in the author’s narration but more frequently it is used in represented speech.
Cumulation is the connection of sentences or phrases that are grammatically and semantically independent.
The cumulative construction is an independent sentence , logically it belongs to a different semantic sphere, and seems quite unexpectedly joined to the previous paragraph by the conjunctive “but”.
Cumulative constructions are usually connected by the conjunctions “but”, “and” sometimes “or”.
Peculiarities of translation of phraseological units in Business English
2.1 Translation of phraseological units in English
Speaking about set phrases it is first of all necessary to differentiate between figurative and non-figurative set phrases. Non-figurative set phrases are translated according to the principles that have already been discussed in connection with words and free phrases. The main guiding principle here is to remember the norms of TL.
Figurative set phrases deserve special discussion. The main peculiarity of these phraseological units is their specific meaning that often cannot be deduced from the meanings of their components. It is the meaning of the whole, not of separate words, that should be rendered in translation. Based on imagery, phraseological units serve to make the text more expressive; they are also often responsible for stylistic coloring of the text. Since the text in TL must be as expressive as it is in SL and characterized by the same stylistic coloring, it becomes very important to find an adequate variant of translating every phraseological unit.
2.2 The peculiarities of translation of phraseological units in the business in the business world
We research phraseological units of English language of business speech, which divided of four large groups:
1. Phraseological units, united on the basis of the general concept «business and management»,
2. Phraseological units, united on the basis of the general concept «monetary relations»,
3. Phraseological units, united on the basis of the general concept «purchase and sale»,
4. Phraseological units, united on the basis of the general concept «economic and relations of production».
Idiomatic or phraseological expressions are structurally, lexically and semantically fixed phrases or sentences having mostly the meaning, which is not made up by the sum of meanings of their component parts. An indispensable feature of idiomatic (phraseological) expressions is their figurative, i.e., metaphorical nature and usage.
Translation of phraseologisms is a very complicated problem. Right translation is stipulated with finding the most concordant and equivalent words that is usually deprived of coloring in the translation as a usual lexical unit.
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