1 Model of public health services. 4
2 Health belief model 7
3 Image of state service of RK.. 9
4 Pharmaceutical associations - a component of public public health services of Republic Kazakhstan. 15
The list of the used literature. 22
2 Health belief model
The health belief model, developed by researchers at the U.S. Public Health Service in the 1950s, was inspired by a study of why people sought X-ray examinations for tuberculosis. It attempted to explain and predict a given health-related behavior from certain patterns of belief about the recommended health behavior and the health problems that the behavior was intended to prevent or control. The model postulates that the following four conditions both explain and predict a health-related behavior:
- A person believes that his or her health is in jeopardy. For the behavior of seeking a screening test or examination for an asymptomatic disease such as tuberculosis, hypertension, or early cancer, the person must believe that he or she can have the disease yet not feel symptoms. This constellation of beliefs was later referred to generally as "belief in susceptibility."
- The person perceives the "potential seriousness" of the condition in terms of pain or discomfort, time lost from work, economic difficulties, or other outcomes.
- On assessing the circumstances, the person believes that benefits stemming from the recommended behavior outweigh the costs and inconvenience and that they are indeed possible and within his or her grasp. Note that this set of beliefs is not equivalent to actual rewards and barriers (reinforcing factors). In the health belief model, these are "perceived" or "anticipated" benefits and costs (predisposing factors).
- The person receives a "cue to action" or a precipitating force that makes the person feel the need to take action.
The model soon changed shape when applied to another set of problems concerning immunization and more broadly to (the variety of) people's different responses to public health measures and their uses of health services. In these wider applications, the model substituted a belief in susceptibility to a disease or health problem for the more specific belief that one could have a disease and not know it, which had been featured in Godfrey Hochbaum's original study as the most important belief accounting for seeking screening examinations. ...
4 Pharmaceutical associations - a component of public
public health services of Republic Kazakhstan
The Kazakhstan Pharmaceutical Herald (KPH) is an informational and analytical newspaper for specialists in the sphere of circulation of pharmaceutical products. Its first issue was published on November 15, 1995. At that time pharmaceutical market of the Republic was just at the beginning of its development. Market participants faced a lot of problems, and the absence of information was one of the most considerable ones. There was an obvious necessity in specialized informational periodical. And it appeared. Response of the pharmaceutical community to the first issues of KPH showed necessity and usefulness of such edition; though it was quite modest and published on simple newsprint.
Archive of the newspaper discloses the history of development of Kazakhstan pharmaceutical market. Sphere of circulation of pharmaceutical products changes every year. Our newspaper changes as well: its design became bright and content - more diverse.
It is a great responsibility to write for specialists. We are committed not only to highlight the current events taking place in the industry, but also keep the readers up-to-date on the running trends. To achieve this aim we constantly work in close cooperation with participants of all segments of pharmaceutical market – manufacturers, their public associations, health officials and Provision of Medicines Divisions under the Departments of Health. Readership is a full member of the process of formation and development of our newspaper.
The Kazakhstan Pharmaceutical Herald is a source of up-to-date, reliable and objective information for all specialists in the sphere of development and manufacture, wholesale and retail sale of pharmaceutical products, provision and prescription of medicines. Subject area of the newspaper covers all sectors of the pharmaceutical market and wide range of problems of pharmaceutical activity and provision of medicines.
Readers of the KHP bi-weekly familiarize themselves with latest government regulations, orders of the Ministry of Health and Pharmacy Committee and other regulations in the sphere of circulation of pharmaceutical products, news on registration (re-registration) of the pharmaceutical products in the Republic of Kazakhstan. KHP also publishes material on emerging issues of pharmaceutical activity, analytical articles on import, export and manufacture of pharmaceutical products, medical and pharmaceutical news as well as news in the pharmaceutical market. KHP reveals foreign experience in organization of medical and medicinal help, conduct of pharmaceutical business. ...
The list of the used literature
1 Adams, P (2004), ‘The history of gambling in New Zealand’, in the Journal of Gambling Issues, Special Issue, Issue 12, December 2004.
2 Commonwealth of Australia 2004, ‘Australian National Tobacco Campaign Evaluation Report: Volume Three’, Viewed 10 July 2008.
3 Korn, D (2002), ‘Examining Gambling Issues from a Public Health Perspective’, in The Electronic Journal of Gambling Issues, Issue 4, pp. 1-18. Viewed 24 June 2008. http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue4/feature/index.html
4 McCabe, M (2008) ‘Public Health Approach to Gambling in South Australia’, Unpublished. ...