Дипломная работа: Lexical and Grammatical Transformations in Banking from English into Russian

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Английский язык
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Дипломные работы
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1.1 Differentiation. 7

1.2 Concretization. 8

1.4 Semantic development 10

1.5 Antonymic translation. 11

1.6 Compensation. 12


2.1 Partitioning. 14

2.3 Transposition. 16

2.4 Replacement 17

2.5 Addition. 22

2.6 Omission. 24



3.1 Differentiation. 25

3.3 Generalization. 33

3.4 Semantic development 36

3.5 Antonymic Translation. 37

3.6 Compensation. 37


4.1 Partitioning. 39

4.2 Integration. 39

4.3 Transposition. 39

4.4 Replacements. 41

4.5 Additions. 43

4.6 Omissions. 44



Appendix. 50


1.5 Antonymic translation

The fifth type of transformation is based on antonyms. It means that a certain word is translated not by corresponding word of target language but by its antonym and at the same time negation is added (or, if there is negation in the original sentence, it is omitted in translation): “The bank wasn’t too far.” – “Банк казался довольно близко” (“far” is translated as “близко” and negation in the predicate is omitted). Not far = близко.


The necessity for this transformation arises due to several reasons: 1) peculiarities of the systems of source language and target language, 2) contextual requirements, 3) traditional norms of target language.


1) The necessity to resort to antonymic translation may be caused by various peculiarities of source language and target language lexical systems: a) in Russian the negative prefix не coincides in its form with negative particle не, while in English they differ (un-, in-, im-, etc. and the negative suffix –less on the one hand and the particle “not” on the other hand); so it is quite normal to say “not impossible” in English, while in Russian не невозможно is bad; b) groups of antonyms in source language and target language do not necessarily coincide: in English the word transaction has an antonym – reversal, while in Russian the word сделка has no antonym, in there are antonyms, etc.


2) Sometimes antonyms become the most adequate way of rendering the contextual meaning: “The only way to avoid bank bankruptcy is to merger with another one” – “Единственный выход, чтобы не обанкротиться, это объединиться с другим банком. This shade of meaning is better rendered by the antonym.


In a particular context this transformation may help to render emotional and stylistic coloring of the text: “It is very difficult to retire such bonds. Why dont you sell some shares?” – “Это очень сложно погашать такие облигации. Может тебе продать часть акций?”. Direct translation “Почему бы тебе не продать часть акций?” is not colloquial in informal speech.


3) Finally the transformation is often necessary for the purpose of observing the traditional norms of target language: “I only wish I could engage such client. I wish I had been working in Transfers department – “Мне очень жаль, что я не могу привлечь такого клиента. К сожалению, я работаю в отделе платежей”. Generally speaking, the English construction “I wish smb + Past Tense form of verb” should always be translated жаль, чтоне. The variant “Я бы хотел, чтобы я мог (в прошлом)” is not Russian. “Not…(un)till” corresponds to the Russian лишь, толькотогда-то.


So let us consider the last type of lexical transformations compensation.


2.6 Omission


Omission is reduction of the elements of the source text considered redundant from the viewpoint of the target language structural patterns and stylistics.

This transformation is seldom structurally obligatory; it is usually caused by stylistic considerations and deals with redundancy traditionally normative in source language and not accepted in target language. A typical example of such redundancy is the use of synonymic pairs in English: “…their stake and share…” – Both the words mean доля”, “акция. There is no need to translate them both, one is quite enough: их доля.


         Sometimes it is recommended to omit semantically empty “tags” of declarative and interrogative sentences: “I can’t be on a meeting and send myself to you at the same time for making transactions, can I?” – “Не могу же я быть на совещании и в то же время прислать самого себя к вам, чтобы проводить транзакции!” they sometimes recommend omitting logical redundancies and repetitions to achieve what is called “compression of the text”. However, it must be remembered that logical redundancy of speech and various repetitions are used by writers to characterize the personage’s individual manner of speaking, his way of thinking, etc. in such cases omissions are not allowed.




3.3 Generalization



The third type of lexical transformations is generalization, is used to generalize the meaning of the words during translation from English into Russian.


Example 1: Daily used in banking term “clearing” in Russian is “клиринг” and its meaning is безналичные расчеты между банками or производить расчет по векселям или чекам через расчетную палату.

In the context it is:

Clearing agent – агент по клирингу, клиринговый агент

Clearing fee – клиринговые комиссионные

Clearing house CH – клиринговая палата


Example 2: “Transaction” is also often used term in banking and can be translated as “транзакция”, “операция” and “сделка” as well:

Сapital transactions – операции по капитальным счетам (по счету капитала)

Сlearing transactions – клиринговые операции

Transaction charge – операционный сбор

Transaction costs – операционные издержки

Transaction balances – транзакционные денежные остатки ...


  1. Introduction into theory and practice of translation. O.V.Petrova. Moscow, 2006.
  2. Basics of translation. G.E.Miram, V.V.Daineko, A.M.Gon, L.A.Taranukha, M.V.Grischenko.Moscow, 2002.
  3. Manual for translation from English into Russian. V.N.Komissarov, Y.I.Retsker, V.N.Tarkhov. Second volume.Moscow, 1965.
  4. Theory of translation and practice of translation. Y.I.Retsker. Moscow, 1974.
  5. Frames for knowledge presentation. M.Minskiy. Moscow, 1975. ...



 Тақырыбы: «Ағылшын тілінен орыс тіліне аудару кезіндегі банк терминологиясының лексикалық және грамматикалық трансформациялары»


Дипломдық жұмыс 65 беттен және 6 қосымша беттен тұрады.


Лексикалық трансформациялардың теориялық негізі мен оған сәйкес келетін банк терминалогиясының мысалдары дипломдық жұмыстың бірінші тарауда қаралды.

Екінші тарауда грамматикалық трансформациялардың теориясы және қолдану тәсілдері қарастырылды.

Банк терминологиясының және аударылған мысалдары үшінші тарауда берілген.




Диплом жұмысының ғылыми жетекшісі___________________






«Лексические и грамматические трансформации при переводе банковской терминологии с английского языка на русский язык»


Дипломная работа состоит из 65 страниц и приложения на 6 страницах.


В первой главе дипломной работы рассматривается теоретическая основа лексических трансформаций, а также даны точные примеры банковской терминологии.

Теория грамматических трансформаций и их использование на практике объясняется во второй главе дипломной работы.

В третьей главе даны проанализированные и переведенные примеры банковской терминологии.




Научный руководитель дипломной работы







 “Lexical and Grammatical Transformations in Banking from English into Russian”

The diploma paper consists of 65 pages and 6 lists of attachments.



The Chapter I is a theoretical basic of all lexical transformations with suggested definite examples in banking.

The Chapter II, deals with grammatical transformations both in theory and in practice.

The Chapter III analyzed and translated examples taken from banking are given.






Scientific Supervisor of the diploma paper_____________________