CHAPTER I INTONATION IN ENGLISH.. 5
1.1 Intonation: approaches, definitions, functions. 5
1.2 Components of intonation and the structure of English intonation group. 6
1.3 Structure and function of intonation. 12
1.4 The linguistic function of intonation. Definition of the rhythm. 14
CHAPTER II PHONETICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE WORK ON INTONATION AND RHYTHM IN TEACHING MODERN ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION.. 17
2.1 New ways of correcting spoken errors. 17
2.2 Problems of correcting students’ pronunciation. 20
2.3 Exercises for the Pronunciation of Plurals for English second language. 22
CHAPTER I INTONATION IN ENGLISH
1.3 Structure and function of intonation
... We must indicate what type of information tye are presenting and how it is structured, and at the same time we must keep our listeners' attention and their participation in the exchange of information communicative interaction would be much more difficult without intonation: think how many misunderstandings between people arise in the exchange of e-mail messages, where intonation cannot play a role English, as in many other languages, pitch is an important component of accentuation, or prominence, both at the level of individual words and at the level of longer utterances. In general, we distinguish between pitches which are relatively steady-state, i. e. which do not change level perceptibly, and those which change by stepping or sliding up or down to another pitch level, as illustrated in the figure below. English intonation characteristically slides or transitions gradually from one pitch level to the next rather than stepping up or down abruptly from one pitch level to the next. Thus, English intonation is best represented by "humps" and "waves" rather than by "angles" and "steps" the first one (with a falling movement on "any") says that she will go out with nobody, while the second (with a falling-rising pitch movement) says that she is careful about who she goes with pitch of the voice is determined by the frequency with which the vocal cords vibrate., The frequency of vibration of the vocal cords is in turn determined by their thickness their length and their tension. The modal pitch of the voice, i. e. one's natural average pitch level, depends on the size of the vocal cords. In general, men have thicker and longer vocal cords than women and children do. As a result, the modal pitch of a man's voice is generally lower than that of a woman or a child addition to its modal pitch, every individual voice has a pitch range which can be achieved by adjustments of the vocal cords tightening the vocal cords, a person can raise the pitch of the voice (vocal pitch); by loosening them, one can lower vocal pitch is also a natural variation in pitch associated with the amount of air that is expended during speech. When the airflow through the glottis is great, it causes the vocal cords to vibrate quickly. As airflow is reduced, the effect on the vocal cords is diminished, and the frequency of vibration decreases. Although it is possible to override these natural effects - e. g. by changing the tension of the vocal folds - in the unmarked case, the pitch of the voice will descend naturally over an utterance as the speaker's breath is used up. This effect is called downdrift a result of downdrift, there is a natural iconic association of falling pitch with finality and related meanings such as assurance or definitiveness. ...
CHAPTER II PHONETICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE WORK ON INTONATION AND RHYTHM IN TEACHING MODERN ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION
2.1 New ways of correcting spoken errors
... 12. Tell them what part they should change
For example, “You need to change the introduction to your presentation” or “Try replacing the third word with something else”.
13. Ask partners to spot errors
This is a fairly well-known way of giving feedback in speaking tasks, but it can be a minefield if the person giving feedback has no confidence in their ability to do so or in how well the feedback (i.e. criticism) will be taken, and even more so if the person receiving the feedback will in fact react badly. This method is easier to do and easier to take when they have been told specifically which language to use while speaking and so to look out for when listening, usually meaning controlled speaking practice tasks. The feedback can be made even simpler to give and collect and more neutral with some careful planning, e.g. asking them count how many times their partner uses the target form as well as or instead of looking for when it used incorrectly.
14. Try again!
Sometimes, students don’t need much help at all but just a chance to do it again. This is likely to be true if you have trained them well in spotting their own errors, if there was some other kind of mental load such as a puzzle to solve that was distracting them from the language, or if they have had a chance to hear someone else doing the same speaking task in the class or on a recording.
Useful language: ...
1. Bolinger D. Intonation and itsUses,Stanford, 1989. - 355p.
2. Brazil D. Discourse Intonation. / D. Brazil, M. Coulthard, C. Johns. - London, 1975. - 515p.
3. Brazil D. The Communicative Value of Intonation in English. Discourse Analysis monograph.8. Birmingham, 1985. - 318p. ...