CHAPTER 1 “FALSE FRIENDS” AS ONE OF THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE TRANSLATION THEORY.. 4
1.1 The translation as a kind of the interlingual communication. 4
1.2. “False friends of translator” and their kinds. 11
CHAPTER 2 THE TRANSLATION OF “FALSE FRIENDS OF TRANSLATOR” 18
2.1 The causes of the “false friends” formation. 18
2.2 Examples of the translation of the “false friends”. 22
2.2 Examples of the translation of the “false friends”
... ‘False friends’ could be called interlanguage synonyms, homonyms and paronyms.
Interlanguage synonyms are words that coincide in one or more meanings. However, beside similar meanings, they have some special meanings. For example, concert – концерт. Both words have the meaning of ‘a musical performance’, but the English word has the second meaning: ‘agreement in purpose, feeling, or action’. The Russian one has acquired a generic meaning of ‘any performance (reciting, drama extracts, etc.)’. Thus they can be equivalents in only the first meaning and somewhat erroneous in their second meaning.
Interlanguage homonyms are words that have no common meanings, like accord – аккорд. The English word means ‘agreement, harmony; a settlement or compromise of conflicting opinions; a settlement of points at issue between the nations. The Russian word is more specific, meaning ‘musical chord’.
Interlanguage paronyms are words with similar but not identical sound, and with different meanings. The case can be illustrated by example – экземпляр. The Russian word denotes ‘a copy’, whereas the English indicates ‘a representative of a group as a whole; a case serving as a model or precedent for another that is the same or similar’.
When compared in the source and target texts, translators’ false friends can differ semantically, syntactically, stylistically, and pragmatically.
Semantic difference presupposes the following oppositions:
- generic vs. specific meaning: actual (real, existing in fact) – актуальный (topical); моторист (air-fitter; machinist) – motorist (one who drives or travels in an automobile).
- monosemantic vs. polysemantic: галантный (couth) – gallant (1. Showy and gay in appearance, dress, or bearing a gallant feathered hat; 2. Stately, majestic; 3.high-spirited and courageous gallant soldiers; 4. Attentive to women, chivalrous, flirtatious.)
- different connotation (positive vs. negative): aggressive (determined to win or succeed) – агрессивный (inclined to act in a hostile fashion)
Structural difference leads to:
- different word combinations: comfortable – комфортабельный have the same meaning ‘producing a feeling of physical relaxation’. But in English this word is combined with the noun income (comfortable income), and in Russian this combination is impossible – the English expression has the equivalent of хороший доход. Likewise, sympathetic – симпатичный, but sympathetic strike – забастовка солидарности. ...
1. Алимов В.В. Теория перевода. Перевод в сфере профессиональной коммуникации. – М.: КомКнига, 2006.
2. Бархударов Л.С., Рецкер Я.И. Курс лекций по теории перевода. – М.: Издательство МГПИИЯ, 1968.
3. Бархударов Л.С. Язык и перевод. – М.: Международные отношения, 1975.
4. Будагов Р.А. Ложные друзья переводчика //Человек и его язык. - М., 1976.
5. Васильева Н.В., Виноградов В.А., Шахнарович А.М. Краткий словарь лингвистических терминов. – М.: Русский язык, 1995.
6. Влахов С., Флорин С. Непереводимое в переводе. – М.: Советский писатель, 1970. ...