TRANSLATION OF LITERATURE TEXT. 4
1.1. Translation and its aims. 4
1.2 Translation development as a science. 8
DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATION THE TITLES OF MOVIES, NEWSPAPER HEADLINES AND TITLES OF BOOKS. 19
2.1 Difficulties in translation the titles of movies. 19
2.2 The ways of translation the paper headlines. 25
2.3 Difficulties in translation the titles of books. 28
TRANSLATION OF LITERATURE TEXT
1.2 Translation development as a science
... Comparing these two poems we realize why namely Lermontov`s poem became a masterpiece, notwithstanding V.Briusov keeps to more exact correspondence of lexical units and prosody.
In Russia literal translation was a real opposition to those who were eager to preserve the inner essence of the original text. For instance, famous and respectable poet A.Fet was the apologist of literalism. He writes, “The translator is happy when he manages, at least partially, to achieve the beauty of form that is inseparable from the original text. The main task of translation is to be literal. No matter it can sound heavy and uneven; the reader with an artistic flair will feel the power of the original text”.
Logic prompts us if even there is a reader with an artistic flair he will not actually need this sort of translation (what about his good taste?). He would rather read the original. Or, perhaps, he would be interested in comparing two texts out of curiosity? Then what is the main function of Literary Translation – to satisfy the inquisitive reader?
With retaining the inner essence of the original text, Gacheciladze points out one interesting detail: the translator must find the “stylistic key” with the help of which translator does not merely translates SD given in the ST using stylistic potential of a separate word. He translates the complex interaction of these Stylistic Devices with the main idea and author’s individual style, thus rendering the “tone” of the ST.
Adequate substitutions briefly reviewed in this Chapter can be interpreted as indispensable constituents of the “stylistic key”.
Let us take B.Zahoder`s translation.
|“…They (bees) might think you were only part of the tree.”|
|“…Они могут подумать, что это листик”|
“Часть дерева”, being translated literally, will sound much worse - it is not the style of a book meant for children.
Much attention was paid by different scholars to literalism (weakening of the style), however, I.Leviy warns us about the opposite phenomenon – the deliberate exaggeration of some stylistic elements in the ST.
Unlike Alan Duff he considers that “the translator has no right to embellish”. K.Tchukovsky, a famous Russian writer and translator, who wrote a lot about translation, gives vivid examples concerning unnecessary exaggerations, “Balmont translates “лоно” instead of “грудь”, “стяг” instead of “флаг” and “подъемлю” instead of “поднимаю”.
“Balmont, writes K. Tchukovsky, is ashamed that Witmen uses such a plain language. That is why he sweetens Witmen`s poems with Slovonicisms”. Summing up all analyzed ideas and phenomena we should bear in mind that techniques acceptable for the Informative Translation are inadmissible for the Literary one. Beauty does not exclude the accuracy. What is more, it should not be interpreted as prettiness and accuracy as literalism.
DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATION THE TITLES OF MOVIES, NEWSPAPER HEADLINES AND TITLES OF BOOKS.
2.3 Difficulties in translation the titles of books
... Most of the arguments on the status of proper names for the individualisation of characters in the novel may be applied to the status of textual titles. Ogden and Richards make the point that proper names are associated with particular experiences which “will help to form the context” that will identify the proper name. Similarly the title of a novel may be considered as a proper name.
The title is associated with the novel’s content and thus it becomes part of the text. In other words, the title derives its identity from the context and translation must take this into account.
Titles can be rather complex especially those that accommodate several latent meanings which can be discovered after experiencing the text. For instance, Charles Dickens’ Hard Times (1854) contains several layers of meanings held in potential and as we read the novel we discover the title’s resonance in utilitarianism, ruthless repression of human nature, and corruption. In contrast to this layered title we can mention the springboard title as when a poet uses a line or phrase from the poem itself for a title: the reader jumps from the line in the title and dives into the poem.
So, generally speaking, it may be said that the literary title carries an idea or an argument relevant to the text. It is not simply an ornament or a mere indication. And the choice of a title can reflect the author’s mind and very often it serves as an introduction to the work. In translation these functions have to be respected but at the same time the translated title must attempt to maintain a relation with the original work. This means that in certain cases a literal translation may be possible as in, for example, the biographical titles that refer to eponymic heroes, titles that take the thematic approach, the intrigue approach, or the setting approach. Whereas in other cases, most particularly those titles that take the intertextual approach, the symbolic approach, or sometimes even the enigmatic approach, it would be difficult to have a literal translation and very often a translation shift would be involved. In the latter case, the target title may stand in a complementary relation to the source title (as a consequence of bilingualism).
The difference between the author and the translator, when it comes to the creation of a title and its equivalence, must be mentioned for completeness’ sake. The author may work cataphorically or anaphorically: he may start from the title and compose his work on it; or he may write the text and then decide upon the title later. But the translator always starts anaphorically: his title refers back to an earlier text (because he must have read the text he is going to translate). But he can occasionally work cataphorically as well.
«Summer morning, Summer Night» (R.Bradbury) - «Летнее утро, летняя ночь»;
«Light in August» (William Faulkner) - «Свет в августе»;
«Eat, Pray, Love» (Elizabeth Gilbert) - «Ешь, молись, люби»; ...
1. Baker, Mona. Rout ledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies/ Mona Baker - London and New-York, Rout ledge, 1997. – 128p.
2. Counts, James. Just the beginning: The art of film titles/ James Counts – New-York, 1999.110p.
3. Danan, Martine. Dubbing as an Expression of Nationalism/ Martine Danan - Journal de Traducteurs, vol.4, 1991. - 690 p. ...