CHAPTER I TRANSLATION OF PROPER NAMES 5
1. Definition of Proper Names 5
1.1 Classification of Proper Names 5
1.2 Ways of Translation of Proper Names 8
1.2.1 Astronyms 8
1.2.2. Zoonyms 11
1.2.3 Toponyms 15
1.3 Transcription in translation of Proper Names 16
1.4 Transliteration 21
CHAPTER II ANALYSIS OF PROPER NAMES TRANSLATION 23
2.1 Proper names in translation of fiction (on the material of translation into English of the history of a town by m.e. Saltykov-Shchedrin) 23
Onomastics, the science which study proper names, is one of the most representative elements of a culture. Anthroponyms, toponyms, and other onomastic forms -such as zoonyms (animals’ names), phytonyms (plants’ names), hydronyms (names of waterways), oronyms (mountains’ names), names assigned to monuments, to battles, to masterpieces, etc., form a real data base in which one may find historical facts about the origins of people, their habits, superstitions, geographical location of a given site, etc. Proper names, descriptions and narrations are all parts of the novel and participate in a fictive world imagined by the author.
Proper names play an important role in a literary work. They point to the setting, social status and nationality of characters. The names containing in their stems components of common nouns and of other parts of speech can, along with their nominal function, carry out 47the function of characterising a person or a place. Charactonyms may be rendered by means of transcription or transliteration as proper names are traditionally rendered, but in this case fictitious names lose the implication which they carry in the original.
Translation strategy in which the majority of cultural referents keep their original form has the objective of making the other culture accessible and favouring the connection with the foreign. Some cultural referents are immediately spotted in a reading; these elements emerge from the text because of their typography. Some others, however, are expressed via allusion and their localisation is likely to be problematic. Another difficulty is that of the connotations conveyed by some cultural referents, especially toponyms.
Connotations and socio-cultural factors are closely linked. Some connotations have to be analysed as social phenomenon; the added values associated with toponyms represent constants of use in the source culture and therefore to a great extent a shared knowledge. The translator, thus, has constantly to choose between an over sense and a loss of sense. Once the choice is made, the obtained result reveals the translator’s subjectivity.
According to the dictionary of N. V. Podolskaya zoonyms can be divided into following groups:
- Kinonyms – names of dogs;
- Hypponyms – names of horses;
- Ornitonyms – names of birds;
- Bisontonyms – names of bisons;
- Insectonyms – names of insects.
Also the author of this dictionary mentions that there are not enough researches on the problems of zoonymics and there is no exact terminology according to the kinds of animals. Not so long times before in this field of study were established such terms as felisionyms – names of cats, camellonyms- names of camels etc. Investigation of zoonyms permits us to find out ethnogenetic relations and territory of people. Zoonyms as well as other types of proper names had been influenced by the extralinguistic factors. Investigating the Kazakh proper names T. Zhanuzakov wrote: ―A zoonym gives us rich material about different stages of language development. Among its components we can find ancient grammatical forms, foreign, archaic and dialectical words.
Another Kazakhstani scholar T. V. Linko supports him and mentions that in Taldykorgan region of Kazakhstan the word ulken – big in the names of animals is substituted with the word dau – big, huge: Daukok, Daubas, Daukaryn, Daukabak etc.
In the region of Zhambyl, district of Merce in some words instead of sound sh [ʃ ] people use the sound ch [tʃ ]: Alchak, Akcholak, Chunak etc. Zoonyms are differentiated by the following features:
- They are divided according to the species of animals;
- They define genetic breed of animals;
- They show the national, dialectical nature of a man;
- They are included into a regional language system;
- They show ethnographic and cultural peculiarities of nation;
- They show a cross-cultural relationship.
The economic development of society, scientific development, scientific progress in the selection and genetics affected naming process of animals. So today we have two categories of zoonyms: traditional and zootechnical. Zootechnical zoonyms are used because of the social reasons – to indicate breed, family and special places (zoos, farms, circuses etc.) where animals live and to register them officially. For example, names of poodle‘s parents are Gold Fortunate (father), Aurora Golden Bleak (mother) and according to its parents‘ names puppy‘s name is Alte Bleak Fortunate. As we have seen the last components of puppy‘s name shows us its family name.
At all tames Kazakh people raised four kinds of cattle (tort tulik mal) – such as sheep, horses, camels and black cattle (cows). ―We are inhabitants of steppe… The main our wealth is in horses; meat and leather are the best food and clothing‖, - as nomad people stated in XVI-XVII centuries. Since Kazakh people was very fond of horse and they says ―Er kanaty – at, which can be translated as ―Horse is the wing of man‖, it means that, for them horse was not only the mean of transport but also best friend, indicator of well-being etc. In the epic and lyro-epic poems heroes were not described without their horses (―Kobylandy‖- Tayburyl, ―Er Targyn‖ - Bayshubar, ―Kyz Zhibek‖ – Ak boz at). The horse was included into ―Zheti Kazyna‖, it is translated as ―Seven Treasures‖ (according to the Kazakh folklore there exist Seven Treasures: brave man, beautiful woman, knowledge, racehorse, dog,weapon).
They gave to their children names connected with a horse. As well as people, horses also were named. In Kazakh language exist such horse names as Baishubar, Tayburyl, Shubarala, Tobylgy mendi tory at, Tarlan at, Akmonshak at, Tokpak zhaldy tory at, Kerkula at, Karakaska at, Sary at, Akkula at, Kokzhorga at, Kulager, Shalkuiryk, Karatobel etc.