CHAPTER I CHARACTERISTICS OF WRITTEN TRANSLATION TYPES 5
1.1 Types of written translation 5
1.2. Written Translation Procedures, Strategies and Methods 7
1.3 Peculiarities of translation of literature text 12
CHAPTER II INFORMATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE ACTIVITY OF TRANSLATOR 17
2.1 Definition of informational resources 17
2.2 Language resources and the language professional 19
The aim of the research work is to investigate the types of written translation and informational resources in the activity of translator.
According to the aim of the work the following objectives were set:
- to analyse the development of the theory of translation in the twentieth century;
- to examine characteristics of written translation types;
- to investigate informational resources in the activity of translator.
The most fundamental methodological researches of the given problem have been carried out by such methodologists as: Alexander L. in his “English grammar”, Smith “The English Language”, N.M. Kayevska “English lexicology”, and many others.
CHAPTER I CHARACTERISTICS OF WRITTEN TRANSLATION TYPES
1.1 Types of written translation
Written translation is a reproduction of the content of the original document by means of the language of translation, in written form.
Written translation types:
- Translation of legal, financial and bank documents.
- Literary, medical, economic translation.
- Translation of passports, diplomas, certificates, licenses and other documents
- Translation of technical documents (catalogues, technical specifications, manuals etc.).
- Translation and makeup of charts, manuals and drawings in all formats.
- Translation and localization of web-sites.
- And many more.
Difficulty level of the translated text.
- business cards
- driving licenses
- military service record cards
- diplomas (without a supplement)
- attorney letter for attendants
- pension cards
- invitation cards
- certificates of marriage
- bills of divorce
- birth certificates
- last name change certificates
- death certificates
- affiliation certificate
- adoption certificates
- Registry office certificates
- family status certificates
- disability certificates
- educational institutions information letters
- registration certificates
- private correspondence (privacy of the correspondence is guaranteed)
2.2 Language resources and the language professional
Traditionally speaking, translation has been regarded as a craft, a fairly unusual gift that, for some, did not even require formal academic training, let alone continuous education on (technological) advancements in the profession. From that standpoint, the translator’s major asset, and only utensil, is his or her own competence for translating, that is, some special ability to transpose meaning from one language to another. But even if natural linguistic talent is always desirable, translators cannot solely rely on it to succeed as language professionals today. Translating has become a complex and permeable professional activity, which among other things requires plenty of intercultural sensitivity and disposition to adapt to new work patterns.
In fact, professional and qualified translators (against the unqualified intruders that slip in the translation profession) do usually gain respect and recognition (and in practical terms, are more employable) for being resourceful and acquainted with the tools of the trade. But what do we mean by ‘resourceful’ here? ‘Resourceful’ in that they are expected to be capable of resolving linguistic problems (and/or cultural misinterpretations) efficiently and at once? Or perhaps, ‘resourceful’ in that they ought to be familiar with resources that allow them to find the right information at a mouse click? What ‘tools of the trade’ do we refer to? Are commercial translation memory packages the hot tools for translators, the one and only?
Up to the late 20th century’s information revolution, heavily characterized by the advent of the personal computer (PC), the so-called ICT, and the Internet, the translator’s tools had primarily been pen and paper (without forgetting about the now old typewriter and the Dictaphone®). Of course, paper understood in its broad sense (different sizes, textures, colours...) as a means to manually catalogue, archive and, hopefully, retrieve – throughout the years – translation notes, bibliographical references, and laborious samples of terminographic work. Undoubtedly, these were extremely valuable (and praiseworthy) self-made resources under a not very convenient support.
Other conventional translators’ resources, linguistic and non-linguistic, consist of printed dictionaries and reference materials (such as voluminous encyclopedias –now online), as well as certain cultural and/or domain-specific knowledge, gradually acquired through reading, visits to libraries, travelling, life experience and, sometimes, long discussions with fellow translators and subject experts over a cup of coffee.