CHAPTER I. GENERAL NOTION ABOUT YOUTH SLANG AND PROFESSIONALISMS 4
1.1.History of slang 4
1.2 The concepts of "slang" , "jargon" 7
1.3 Professionalism as a lexical unit 8
1.4 Methods and main difficulty of translating jargon 9
CHAPTER ІІ.GENERAL PITFALLS IN TRANSLATION OF YOUTH SLANG AND PROFESSIONALISMS.SAMPLES 12
2.1 Difficulties of Slang Translation 12
2.2 Types of slang. Rhyming slang 15
2.3.1.Dictionary of youth slang during 1960-70's 22
CHAPTER I. GENERAL NOTION ABOUT YOUTH SLANG AND PROFESSIONALISMS
1.2 The concepts of "slang" , "jargon"
Speaking vocabulary – is a such vocabulary which is used in everyday life , everyday dialogue[ 4;99].
In real everyday speech communication reflects the fractional differentiation of socio-cultural groups, microgroups, various social groups. Thus can be seen colorful patchwork of ways of expressing thoughts, emotions , tactics , strategies, dialogues , constructing written and oral texts , the usage of words .
Among all of this ocean of speech , can be found specific , "their" rules of usual verbal behavior of each of the socio- cultural groups and microgroups . Obviously in this case , the rules are often diverge sharply (due to discrepancies with accepted norms in the society of verbal behavior ) with the norms of the literary language . So , there are known for their " originality " of verbal behavior and communication army life, camp- prison life , gender microgroups ( exclusively male or exclusively female ) production teams and so on.
By its appearance in the light of development jargon is obliged to guild production in medieval Europe , when the guild team , due to increasing competition , solved the problem of protection of certain industrial knowledge and technology . This resulted in a special coded language masters - argot . The word " argot " comes from the French . "Argot" – speech of certain closed groups , which is created with the aim of linguistic isolation . It is basically a special or peculiar mastered common lexicon . At the moment the word " slang " outdated, and instead uses the term "jargon ."
For English-language linguistics characteristic distinction between the concepts "jargon" and "slang". In the English linguistics decided to use the term "slang" to refer uncodified language. Currently in dictionaries meets at least two basic interpretations of the word slang. First, a special speech subgroups or subcultures of society, and, secondly, the use of a wide vocabulary for informal communication [Pocket Oxford Dictionary March 1994].
If we consider the quasi- professional languages , you can select the next number of reasons for their use of communicative group members : First, people want to communicate with each other in the presence of strangers, staying misunderstood , secondly , is there a desire to conceal the secrets of their craft and trade, Third , they need insulation from hostile forces (criminal jargon ) . Another important reason to include the desire to voice expressiveness.
CHAPTER ІІ.GENERAL PITFALLS IN TRANSLATION OF YOUTH SLANG AND PROFESSIONALISMS.SAMPLES
2.1 Difficulties of Slang Translation
As the great German linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt said: "Every translation seems to me as an attempt to resolve the impossible task . For each translator must inevitably be broken by one of two pitfalls, too exactly sticking to the script by taste and language of target text, or the identity of their own people at the expense of the original. Something medium between two of them is not only difficult to achieve, but is just impossible . " His views are shared by many scientists . Their arguments are as follows : first , they say, words which we accept as equivalent , actually cause different representations in carriers of different languages . So , in every language there is a word meaning ' house ', ' dwelling ' . But the idea of its appearance and the interior decoration of a Russian , an Englishman , an Uzbek and a Negro from South Africa will vary greatly : the words of different languages cause different associations.
But the difference is not only in words - one language allocates by ten times, second has only two, in one you have to always indicate the number of items in the other – it is not necessarily . Different languages " see" the world differently form the consciousness of their carriers. Is it possible to translate the vision of the world?
In many mistakes blame so-called false friends translator - words of one language , similar in sound to the words of another , but with a different meaning . Thus, British paragraph, for instance, means ' section ' and ' Paragraph ' .
The second reason many errors - misunderstanding idioms , set phrases . English can not be translated literally to catch cold ("catch a cold") - this expression means «intervene».
There are cases when the interpreter need not only knowledge , but also a special skill. Writer often playing with words , and this game can be difficult to recreate . Here is the English joke , built on pun . A man comes to the funeral and asks : I'm late? And in response to hearing : Not you, sir. She is. The English word means late and ' late ' and ' late ' . Hero asks: I missed ? And he answered: No, not dead , sir , and she . What to do? In Russian game does not work. But the translator came out: It's over ? - Not for you, sir. For her. Such traps await an interpreter at every step.
In order to understand the methods of translation and translation transformation often used for an adequate translation of professionalism necessary to study the examples of translation of specialized texts.
As the initial text was selected game guide betting on horse races. This choice is due to the fact that this text contains a lot of jargon, is used in a narrow group of people who specialize in this type of activity.
Based on the analysis of theoretical positions on the application of various methods and techniques of translation was concluded preferred embodiments translation jargon.
Based on the analysis taken as an example of the text «Drifting Favorites», was compiled following table showing the frequency of use of various techniques of translation with an explanation of each of the selection methods. (Appendix B)
Based on the analysis of the English translation of jargon into the Russian language , we can conclude that the most common mode of transmission of the semantic meaning of such words and phrases is a functional replacement or description. Transcription and transliteration is possible when translating widespread in the initial medium terms, but if the transfer is not intended for a specialized audience , you need further explanation on the part of the translator.
Use of well-known words in a professional context often leads to a transition in the last digit of professionalism. That such cases are particularly difficult for the translator . Inattentive reading the original text and translation misrepresent the obvious expressions.
For example, in the text Drifting Favorites word "lay", which broadly means " to lie down, put " takes on an entirely unexpected value - " to bet against ." Despite the fact that the expression «lay bets» is set to " bet " , there is another expression denoting a similar effect - «back bets». In order to distinguish between these two expressions , the interpreter must grasp the context of use of each of them .
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