CHAPTER I. THEORETICAL ISSUES OF TRANSLATION.. 5
1.1 Development of translation notion in linguistics. 5
1.2 Equivalence of translation. 7
1.3 Types of translation. 11
1.4 Pragmatics of translation. 15
CHAPTER II. LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES OF SCIENTIFIC-TECHNICAL TEXTS. 22
2.1 The characteristic of the scientific and technical language. 22
2.2 Analysis of terminology in scientific-technical style. 26
CHAPTER I. THEORETICAL ISSUES OF TRANSLATION
1.4 Pragmatics of translation
One of the problems of linguistics of the text traditionally connected with the theory of translation is the actual partitioning or the functional prospect of the sentence. Fruitful for the theory of translation is, in particular, ascending to F. Danesh idea of a thematic progression, according to which the theme cement the text, while rheme serves for transference of new information.
Yu. V. Vannicov has developed the scheme focused on the translation of the typology of texts. This scheme is based on 14 main typological attributes generalizing the properties of text from the point of view of practice of translation:
1). Linguistic organization;
2). Functional style;
3). Functional substyle;
4). Speech modus;
5). Dominant logic contents;
6). Subject (thematic) contents;
7). Form of speech presentation;
8). Genre differentiation;
9). Information primacy - non primacy;
10). Expressive - stylistic mentioning;
11). Basic pragmatic functions;
12). Concrete purposes;
13). Types of adequacy of the text;
14). Types of adequacy of translation.
To the linguistic organization belong oppositions of the texts with rigid structure (scientifically technical) and with soft structure (art). This attribute also takes into account the degree of copula of the text. The functional styles are pointed depending on sphere of communication (scientifically technical, social - business etc).
Typology created by Yu. V. Vannicov can be seemed a little bulky. But its dividing into parts makes it more adequate to the given task - the reflection of real variety of the texts.
The essential advantage of this typology is that it takes into account the presence of mixed and transitive cases as well. So, for example, Yu. V. Vannicov especially points out such functionally non-uniform texts as informing - ordering.
So, as a conclusion to chapter one of this work, it can be said that in the result of the factors mentioned above, different peculiarities might be revealed during translation. They are related to common features and differences between similar functional styles of languages as well as to specific conditions and tasks of translation activity of this type. In the outline of each functional style there are some certain peculiarities and their impact on the procedure and the way of translation are significant. Therefore, in this research work the peculiarities of scientific-technical materials based on electric devices manuals are studied. In the next chapter lexical and grammatical peculiarities have been reviewed.
CHAPTER II. LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES OF SCIENTIFIC-TECHNICAL TEXTS
2.1 The characteristic of the scientific and technical language
In any scientific and technical text, irrespective of its contents and character, can be completely precisely translated from one language to other, even if in an artwork such branch of knowledge is required, for which in language of translation there is no appropriate nomenclature. In such cases the interpreter more often resorts to interpretation, but becoming of a necessary nomenclature of a realization in a sphere of production or those scientific circles, which are engaged in data by problems.
To ensure valuable translation, it is necessary to an interpreter to present the following requests:
1. The substantial acquaintance to a subject, which is treated in the original text.
2. Good enough knowledge of language of an artwork and its lexical and grammatical features in comparison to the native language.
3. Knowledge of the bases' theory of translation, and also receptions of technical translation and skill to use them.
4. Legible introducing about the character of scientific and technical functional style both in language of the original, and in the native language.
5. Acquaintance to accepted conventional signs, abbreviations (cuttings), systems of measures and weights, both in language of the original and in the native language.