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Английский язык
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Introduction    3
Chapter I Definition of translation    7
1.1. Dialects of national colouring in the translation    7
1.2. Colouring and erasure of colouring    10
Chapter II Pecualirities of translation of definite and indefinite articles    16
2.1. Definition of English articles    16
2.2 Pecualirities of definite and indefinite articles    19
Conclusion    24
Bibliography    27
Appendix    28


Article is a determining unit of a specific nature accompanying the noun in communicative collocation. A (an)/the form a separate group or class characterized by: the lexico-grammatical meaning of definiteness/indefiniteness; The lexical meaning of a(n) in ME is a very weak reminder of its original meaning (one), though it is not used with “plural” nouns. The lexical meaning of the in ME is a pale shadow of its original demonstrative meaning а the meaning of articles abstracts form the meaning of oneness in a(n) and demonstrative meaning in the.
The names of the articles (definite/indefinite) denote the nearest approach to this lexico-grammatical meaning (definiteness/indefiniteness).
-the right-hand combinability with nouns;
-the function of noun specifiers.
Translation is a mean of interlingual communication. The translator makes possible an exchange of information between users of different languages by producing in the target language a text which has an identical communicative value with the source text. This target text is not fully identical with the source text as to its form originality content due to the limitations imposed by the formal and semantic differences between the source language and target text. 
         National colouring of the work is one of examples of these differences. Now it is one of important themes to be studied/ during many years the USSR’s confines were closed and we had not much opportunity to interact with many foreign countries. Of course, we had a great number of foreign books but most of them were either classic books or books of working class. So we had not opportunity to value all the literature of foreign countries. The same case was in the foreign countries when they could not get all the variety of Russian literature. They also preferred to read our classics. The result of it was that they could know only archaic colouring of the works and they had little information about national colouring of Kazakhstan. And now then USSR does not exist any more every state that was a part of the USSR can perform its own literature and hence national colouring.
         The author of this course paper considers that every literature work has its own national colouring. Every work is written in the conditions of the country where the author lives. Therefore the country with its language, mode of life, political, historical, economical atmosphere and many other factors influence on the work and it acquires the national colouring of the country even if the author does not think of creating of any work that would be nationally colored.
The author of this course paper considers the preservation of national colouring to be one of the most difficult tasks for translator. National colouring is the property of the country or its part. Every nation is proud of its history; traditions and it would consider an offence if the translator does not manage to convey the national colouring or if he conveys it wrong. That is why the translator must be very attentive and careful with any kind of literary work.
  It also has common to all mankind, international character to which historical conditions give its own national colouring, its self-expression. That is why we speak about national specific character that was formed in the certain historical, social, geographic another condition of this country. This specific character has enough concrete expression where one or another sign is predominant and that is seen in one or another nation form. There is national originality reflected in the literature and other fields of social science and it has the more significance the more it is rich in content, progressiveness, brightness: other nations are enriched meeting with it discovering something new, interesting, useful and important for them in this specific character.

1.1. Dialects of national colouring in the translation

Any literary work appears on the national ground, reflects national problems, features and at the same time the problems common to all mankind. Passing from one nation to another literature enriches and extends the notion of peoples about each other.
It is one of the most difficult cases to convey national colouring.            Owing to the translation very important literary works were able to appear in many other countries and became available for people speaking other languages. The translation helps mutual knowing and peoples' enrichment.
National colouring must be reflected adequately in the translation.
Dialectics of national colouring reveals itself specifically in different fields of spiritual culture of people and thus in various types of translation.
In the scientific and technique literature the national psychological categories are less expressed. The contents of such translations are valuable for all nations in spite of their national specific. [1, p.345]
Thus, for example, concerning natural sciences Darwin's theory or classic physics of Newton or modern physics of Einstein or Bore have the same meaning for all the countries and nations. The original texts of natural-scientific works and their translations do not differ much from this point of view.
Here there is another case in the field of social-political literature. It is closely connected with the ideological society of the country with its history and its historical specifics and it can never be separated from country peculiarities and demands, political conditions, the events of its time and it is changed by the factors that reflect the notion development. National peculiarities, problems and interests put impress both on the contents and style of any author. In general the translation of social-political literature is more similar with scientific literature.[2,  p. 24-25]
Comparing the works of J. Steinbeck, J. Austin and others we shall see the specific of author’s personality and country specific.
The national beginning of one or another country reflected in its literature culture and in written culture that is especially interesting for us from the translation point of view is the aggregate of characteristic peculiarities and features that are specific for this nation and the constant historical development of this nation.

1.2. Colouring and erasure of colouring

The notion of colouring appeared in the literary criticism terminology and meant a special quality of literary work, speech characteristic of personage, a special emotional or linguistic look of separate literary work or an writer’s works, that is all peculiarities and originalities. Colouring of a word shows its belonging to a certain people, country, concrete historical epoch.
National (local) and historical colouring of realia is a new additional meaning to its main signification. A.S. Pushkin uses realias евнух, гарем, гяур, чубук, щербет in Bahchisaray’s fountain; their specific colouring gives an oriental colouring to the poem. According to dictionaries щербет is an oriental fruit soft drink and it differs from lemonade by its regional belonging and it is considered as a colouring. This neutral word turns into realia owing to relation with this region. But if an inhabitant of this region who works in the West faces with this word it gives him an association connected with his motherland, his recollections and feelings.
It makes us consider colouring a part of connotative meaning of a realia. [4, p.395]
It is appropriate to compare realias – words with specific national and historical colouring – connotative lexis – with words deprived of such colouring. We may use two words – bird cherry and rook. They are only details of nature: bird cherry is a tree that grows in Northern America, Europe and Asia; and rook is specie of birds from crown family. These words are not realias because of their wide-spreadness and they are not connected with people or country. However associations connected with bird cherry (the height of spring) and rook (expectation of spring) make a heart of Russian man quicken. He connects their connotatively with realia not turning them into realia. 
Another example touches up some difficulties translating of the title of famous Russian film Летят журавли into the French language: the French word grue also means silly girl and a woman of easy virtue.
So they had to substitute the word “crane” for the word “stork”.
In these examples connotative words in contradiction to realia have full and significant equivalents. [9, p.143]
“Inconvenient” word is often substituted for its functional analogies. For example, bird cherry can be substituted for early blooming tree or bush – for England it can be substituted for plum or cherry-tree or even for lilac; instead of rook they can use any convenient bird. The main idea is to evoke a reader of translated text the same associations that has a reader of origin text. [6, p.45]
The transmission of connotative word by means of devices that are characteristic feature for the transmission of realia usually leads to an undesirable results: a corresponding word must evoke a definite reaction.