Chapter I Definition of adverb 5
1.1 The adverb as a part of speech 5
1.2 Classification of adverbs 8
Chapter II Syntactic functions and pattens of combinability 13
2.1. The grammatical role of adverb in the sentence 13
2.2. Place of adverbs in the sentence 18
The aim of my course work is the problem of classifying adverbs and their function in the sentence.
The adverb/adverbial is quite a difficult area of the English language to get to grips with. It has been said that, when all the other words of English had been classified as nouns, verbs, prepositions, etc., those remaining were dumped into the adverb class because nobody knew what else to do with them. Even if this is not entirely historically accurate, it certainly describes the confused state of this word class.
The intense development of adverbs in the English language is obviously due not to one single factor but to several interrelated causes, such as the monosyllabic character of English and its analytic structure.
It is common knowledge that in order to provide an adequate translation, the translator must be able to sense nuances in the semantics of both the source-language and target-language texts. English adverbs are of great interest to me in this respect because they possess quite a number of semantic, grammatical and stylistic peculiarities, sometimes making their accurate translation into Russian difficult. Of course, in dealing with the translation of such lexical units into his or her native language, the translator can consult the appropriate bilingual dictionary, but what about the profound comprehension of why this or that adverb is translated only this and not any other way?
It also has common to all mankind, international character to which historical conditions give its own national coloring, its self-expression. That is why we speak about national specific character that was formed in the certain historical, social, geographic another condition of this country. This specific character has enough concrete expression where one or another sign is predominant and that is seen in one or another nation form. There is national originality reflected in the literature and other fields of social science and it has the more significance the more it is rich in content, progressiveness, brightness: other nations are enriched meeting with it discovering something new, interesting, useful and important for them in this specific character.
1.1 The adverb as a part of speech
Adverbs are a miscellaneous class of words that is not easy to define. Some adverbs resemble pronouns, e.g. here, there, then, where. Others have a lot in common with prepositions, e.g. about, since, in before, over. Still others are derived from adjectives, e.g. seriously, slowly, remarkably.
Adverbs have diverse lexical meanings and differ from each other in their structure and role in the sentence./1, p.24/
Structurally, some adverbs are single words (e.g. fast, well, clearly, somehow, nowhere, sideways, southward (s), etc.), others are phrases (e.g. at last, all along, at first, in front, from above, since then, till later, for once, the day after tomorrow, all of a sudden, as a result, etc.).
Most adverbs serve to modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs in the sentence.
e.g. He spoke resolutely.
They are coming here tomorrow.
He has known it all along.
My mother looked somewhat pale.
She knew him very well.
Some adverbs modify whole sentences expressing an evaluation of what is said in the sentence with respect to the form either of communication or to its content.
e.g. Briefly, there is nothing more I can do it about.
Frankly, I am tired.
Still other adverbs have a connective function between what is being said and was said before.
e.g. I’ve talked to him several times about the matter, and yet he does nothing about it.
He, however, has not arrived yet.
The girl seems very intelligent, though.
She would not come anyway.
1.2 Classification of adverbs
According to their meaning, adverbs fall into the following groups:
1) adverbs of time: afterwards, already, at once, eventually, immediately, lately, now, presently, soon, suddenly, then, when, yesterday, yet, etc.
e.g. He is coming tomorrow.
He is now in his office.
2) adverbs of frequency: always, constantly, hardly ever, never, occasionally, often, seldom, sometimes, three times, twice, etc.
e.g. He is always in time for meals.
They sometimes stay up all night.
3) adverbs of place or direction: abroad, ashore, backwards, below, downstairs, everywhere, here, inside, outside, seaward(s), there, to and fro, where, etc.
e.g. I looked for him everywhere.
It was all rather dark within.
A dog began to bark somewhere inside.
The use of somewhere, anywhere, and nowhere in different kinds of sentences is similar to the use of the corresponding indefinite pronouns some, any and no.
4) adverbs of manner: badly, clearly, deeply, fast, how, quickly, sideways, sincerely, somehow, well, willingly, etc.
e.g. He speaks English well.
George played very badly in the match yesterday.
Adverbs of manner saying how an action is performed can freely occur with dynamic verbs, but not with stative verbs.
e.g. He looked into the problem carefully.
He walked upstairs quietly.
The boy blushed violently.
5) adverbs of degree or intensifiers: completely, enough, extremely, highly, much, nearly, perfectly, pretty, quite, rather, really, so, somewhat, terribly, too, unusually, very, etc.
e.g. I quite agree with you.
He is very clever.
He did it quickly enough.
Adverbs of degree or intensifiers may be subdivided into three semantic groups:
a) emphasizes (emphasizing the truth of the communication): actually, at all, clearly, definitely, indeed, just, literally, plainly, really, simply, etc.
e.g. I really don’t know what he wants.
They literally tore his arguments to pieces.
I simply do not believe you.
I just cannot understand it.