CHAPTER I THEORETICAL BASES OF FORMATION OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TO STUDENTS 3
1.1 The definition and notion of Intercultural Communication 3
1.2 Culture Shock - causes, consequences and solutions: the International experience 11
CHAPTER II PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF FORMATION OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TO STUDENTS 24
2.1 Principles and techniques of formation of intercultural communication 24
2.2 Different types of communicative exercises as means of IC formation 39
2.3 Implementation of culture-based communicative exercises in the formation of intercultural communication (IC) (Experimental work) 56
CHAPTER II PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF FORMATION OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TO STUDENTS
2.1 Principles and techniques of formation of intercultural communication
The linguistic aspects of intercultural communicative competence are those that have to do with achieving an internalized functional knowledge of the elements and structures of the language. The pragmatic aspects of communicative competence are those that have to do with how language is used in communicative situations to achieve the speaker's purposes and overcome the problems he/she faces. In general, the major principles of the communicative approach can be summarized as follows.
- Learners implement a language through using it to communicate
- Authentic and meaningful communication should be the goal of classroom activities
- Fluency and accuracy are both important goals in language leaning
- Communication involves the integration of different language skills
- Learning is a process of creative construction and involves trial and error Teaching models are not only for qualitative result of preparation of school students but also for system and continuity of the maintenance of formation and also for integrative received knowledge for intercultural communicative competence. There are some exact principles offered to serve to develop the students' capabilities and pragmatic abilities and competency;
- Principle of multi-variability and alternativeness of formation;
- Principle creative stimulus formations through creative-developing system of tasks or the projects, differentiated on competence;
- Principle of problem pointedness and analytic-constructive productivity in the organization of educational process;
- Principle of innovative and informative orientation and preparations of learners;
- Principle of scientific fundamental nature and produced information as a result of education redundancy of the maintenance of formation can be intellectual creative competence;
- Principle of practical stimulations of cogitative and informative-educational activity of learners;
- Principle of continuation of reflective-developing character, maintenance of formation and technology of training (self-management, a self-estimation, self-development) [27 103].
We think these principles could be useful recourse and criteria to design a competence teaching model. As the time passes, the changes occur in all spheres of life and language teaching field too. Thus, they may need some adaptation to the requirements of changes happening in the globalizing world. We could create or admit very general points of views or rules that we can develop and adapt the principles on. Consequently, cardinal changes in substantial aspect of principles of formation testify that:
- Formation of knowledge gives a creative way. That is why revision is subject for all education system for the purpose of maintenance of realization set given above.
- Key principles;
- The specified principles predetermine the assumed result a formation paradigm where competence formation urged to provide the qualitative result. Each of the key principles, above mentioned, for competence formations is directed to definitions of competence, presented in the sample of model for the graduates of school, on the contrary each competence is directed on introduction of one of the principles of competence teaching.
As we know the components of ICC are often grouped in three categories (cognitive, behavioural and affective); then, the expected outcomes are usually assorted as "knowledge", "skills" or" "attitudes" (outputs). Depending on the desired outcome, there are different methods we can use to develop students' IC. Fowler and Blohm (2004) proposed, in our opinion, the most comprehensive list of methods that are shown in table 1[27, 37-84].
2.2 Different types of communicative exercises as means of IC formation
It has been witnessed the great amount of changes in our understanding of how languages are acquired and taught in the second half of the twentieth century. It has become clear that linguistic, psychological and socio-cultural factors play a key role in the process of foreign language teaching and studying. Furthermore, it has also been understood, depending on the requirements of globalizing world that, communication is a pivotal point in foreign language teaching and acquisition. The concept of foreign language teaching and learning explains the emergence of Communicative Approaches to foreign language teaching over the last decades when the pedagogical goal is to develop students' communicative competence, the ability to use the linguistic system of the target language in an effective and appropriate way. However, the implementation of a communicative methodology is not an easy task. In fact, it represents a challenge for language students since it requires an understanding of the complex and integrated nature of the theoretical concept communicative competence.
2.3 Implementation of culture-based communicative exercises in the formation of intercultural communication (IC) (Experimental work)
1. Purpose of the Study
Foreign language teaching plays a major role in preparing students to be successful inhabitants of globalizing world. The cultural content existing in foreign language teaching has been largely discussed. However, as far as we see these cultural content or cultural based activities have not been designed in course books enough and put into practice fully in foreign language teaching. The purpose of this experimental work is to examine the influences and impacts of the use of culture-based exercises and activities in foreign language teaching in the formation of Intercultural Communication (IC). Sixty four students who participated in the research survey conducted at School 15 were randomly selected. The aim of this research was to find out the attitudes of both teachers and students towards foreign (English) language teaching and/or learning through culture-based activities such as: games, role plays, dialogues, discussions, comparisons of home and host cultures, video and so on before and after the experiment done. We have also tried to find out the influences and impacts of culture-based communicative exercises and activities on the progresses and achievement of the students. The stated activities were modified according the and along with the tasks in each unit of the course books, used for each subject and lesson in 2012-2013 academic years. These activities could vary from warming up, reading, listening, speaking, vocabulary and garmmar to homework tasks in the units accordingly. Through practicing the aforementioned various culture-based tasks and exercises, the students also developed their communicative and linguistic competence in the target language (English), respectively. The results obtained from this research offer insights into how culture-based activities can be used not only to develop and enhance students' language skills but also their awareness of various sensitive intercultural issues.
2. Problem Statement
The processes and results of foreign language teaching are affected by various factors, techniques, methods, principles and approaches. The use of culture of the target language or culture-based activities and exercises as one of the effective approaches and ways in foreign language teaching is not an exception. However, it has been given a poor consideration. Bearing in mind that cultural competence is an integral part of Communicative Competence and Intercultural Communication; teachers should create an atmosphere of a real target language speaking society or environment through the use of lingua-cultural aspects.
As Kilickaya says: In class culture is created and implemented through the dialogue between teacher-students and students-students through their dialogue, participants not only replicate a given context of culture but also has the potential of shaping a new culture .We think culture is enacted and created by the dialogue not just between the teacher and students also among the students. In this work we will focus on how culture is viewed by teachers and students in foreign language teaching and learning atmosphere and also how does the application of the cultural based activities influence the result of foreign language teaching. So, the problem statement is settled as follows:
The main problem in foreign language education is that the L2 students are not able to use target language effectively and appropriately for intercultural communication. The cultural content existing in language teaching has been discussed a lot. However, as far as we see these cultural content or culture-based exercises and activities have not been designed in course books enough and put into practice fully in foreign language teaching. The main purpose of this study is to find out the attitudes of students towards using culture-based activities and tasks in language classes and also how the application of the culture-based activities influence the result of foreign language teaching/learning. We designed and used the collaborative culture-based activities and exercises that the students can use along with the course books during language classroom instructions including the cultural-backgrounds of students in multi-lingua cultural environment of School 15.