CHAPTER I CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGLISH PUBLICISTIC STYLE 4
1.1 Functional styles of the English language 4
1.2 General characteristics of the English publicistic style 5
1.3 Grammatical and lexical peculiarities of English publicistic texts 8
CHAPTER II THE PECULIARITIES OF PUBLICISTIC STYLE TRANSLATION 10
2.1 On the approaches of translation used in Newspaper Style 10
2.2 The ways and difficulties of translation the publicistic headlines 12
2.3 Establishing pragmatic value of publicistic headlines and difficulties of their translation from English into Russian 14
CHAPTER I CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGLISH PUBLICISTIC STYLE
1.1 Functional styles of the English language
Functional styles are the subsystems of language, each subsystem has its own peculiar features in what concern vocabulary means, syntactical constructions, and even phonetics.[6;9] The appearance and existence of functional styles are connected with the specific conditions of communication in different spheres of human life. Functional styles differ not only in the possibility or impossibility of using some elements but also due to the frequency of their usage [6;12]. For example, some terms can appear in the colloquial style but the possibility of its appearance is quite different form the possibility to meet it in an example of scientific style.
The classification of functional styles is a very complicated problem. In the English literary standard we distinguish the following major functional styles:
1) The language of belles-lettres.
2) The language of publicistic literature.
3) The language of newspapers.
4) The language of scientific prose.
5) The language of official documents.
Each functional styles is a relatively stable system at the given stage in the development of the literary language, but it changes, and sometimes considerably, from one period to another. Therefore FS is a historical category. Thus, for example in the 17th century it was considered that not all words can be used in poetry, and that a separate poetic style exists. Later, in the 19th century romanticism rejected the norms of poetic style and introduced new vocabulary to poetry. The development of each style is predetermined by the changes in the norms of standard English. It is also greatly influenced by changing social conditions, the progress of science and the development of cultural life.
Each functional style may be characterized by a number of distinctive features, leading or subordinate constant or changing obligatory or optional. Every functional style of language is marked by a specific use of language means, thus establishing its own norms which, however, are subordinated to the norm-invariant and which do not violate the general notion of the literary norm. The writers of the given period in the development of the literary language contribute greatly to establishing the system of norms of their period. It is worth noting that the investigations of language norms at a given period are to great extent maintained on works of men of letters. Selection, or deliberate choice of language, and the ways the chosen elements are treated the main distinctive features of individual style.
Individual style is a unique combination of language units, expressive means and stylistic devices peculiar to a given writer, which makes that writer's works or even utterances easily recognizable. [6;17] Naturally, the individual style of a writer will never be entirely independent of the literary norms and canons of the given period. But the adaptations of these canons will always be peculiar and therefore distinguishable. This style is based on a thorough knowledge of the contemporary language and allows certain justifiable deviations from the rigorous norms. Individual style requires to be studied in a course of stylistics in so far as it makes use of the potentialities of language means, whatever the characters of these potentialities may be.
The term “neutral style” is used mostly to denote the background for realizing stylistic peculiarities of stylistically colored elements. Neutral style is characterized by the absence of stylistic coloring and by the possibility to be used in any communicative situation. This style is deliberately simplified. It serves any situation of communication. [1;25]
CHAPTER II THE PECULIARITIES OF PUBLICISTIC STYLE TRANSLATION
2.1 On the approaches of translation used in Newspaper Style
English newspaper style may be defined as a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader.
Since the primary function of newspaper style is to impart information, only printed matter serving this purpose comes under newspaper style proper. Such matter can be classed as:
1. brief news items and communiqués;
2. press reports (parliamentary, of court proceedings, etc.);
3. articles purely informational in character;
4. advertisements and announcements.
The most concise form of newspaper informational is the headline. The headlines of news items, apart from giving information about the subject-matter, also carry a considerable amount of appraisal (the size and arrangement of the headline, the use of emotionally colored words and elements of emotive syntax), thus indicating the interpretation of the facts in the news item that follows.
a) Brief news items
The function of a brief news item is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. Newspaper style has its specific vocabulary features and is characterized by an extensive use of:
As the usual offer: The days of double voting has been numbered under a new system.
3) headlines with an infinitive. They say about the future event, which yet does not happen, but should occur.
- “Queen to visit India” - Королева собирается посетить Индию.
(Daily Nation, 24.03.07, p.124)
As the usual offer: the Queen is going to visit India. In headline we have not the article ”the” and the auxiliary verb to be –“is” plus irregular verb to go – “going”.
- ”Mayor to Open Shopping Mall” - Мэр откроет новый торговый комплекс