Дипломная работа: Separatism in Europe history and present day (2016)

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1.1 Definition and meaning of the separatism
1.2 Contemporary- styled species of the Separatism 
1.3 Historical background of separatist movement in Europ

2.1 Spain. Catalonia and The Country of Basques 
2.2 Referendum of independence in Scotland: chain reaction 
2.3 Italy. South Tyrol political forces and its autonomy 
2.4 The Ukrainian Separatism in action




1.1    Definition and meaning of the separatism

In today's world separatism is one of the most pressing problems. Therefore, this problem is widely debated in both political and academic circles. The urgency of the problem is obvious. To date, there is hardly a political mass media, without ever turning to the analysis of the problem of separatism whether in Europe, the Balkans, or anywhere else in the world. Separatism is a complex, ambiguous and multifaceted phenomenon. It is both justified by inner feelings of justice so necessary in an age of moral oblivion in big politics, and in the same time evidenced in marginality, radicalism and aggression.
Returning to the question of ambiguity of separatism, one should also mention the fact that separatism, which is largely a matter if not of the regional level, but certainly of an internal affairs of a sovereign state, is proving to be a matter of international importance. The fact of occurrence of separatist sentiments or overt manifestations of radical forms of liberation movements in a particular state often undermines the credibility of the state. Moreover, it is sometimes justified or even contrived stumbling block in interstate politics.
Today, all world’s community enters new era, that characterized by emergence of vast and wide-spreader phenomenons and challenges to the world’s civilization, like the international terrorism, progressive nationalism, religious intolerance, also the political separatism, that declare about itself more and more persistently. The destruction of the number of political states in Asia, Africa and Europe, destructive potential of the disintegrated nations, that existed for a long time in a framework of the unified governments, gives some foundations to suppose, that political separatism spreading out of framework not only of the national security, but also and the regional security, obtaining more international aspect.
Separatism represents itself like an actual menace to the integrity of state. Almost every big country has 2 or 3 ethnical groups, that more of less intensively demands to give them any form of self-administration up to the independence. [1, p. 17]. 
Contemporary authors determine the separatism like an activity, to wound the integrity of state by the way of separation of any part from the country. This activity could be expressed as in violent actions, as in informational- psychological or humanitarian-technological impact. Separatism could exist as in obvious, as in latent (hidden) form.
There are pretty big variety of the «Separatism» definitions in the scientific literacy, that has a different accents. By the way, in the domestic literacy, the separatism obtained its today’s definition not right away. The analyzation of the encyclopedic publications allows us to follow by the changing of treatment of the Separatism definition.
In the second part of XIX century the Separatism was perceived as the manifestation of Schism – «the spirit of apostasy in the affairs of faith» [2]. But after small interval of time we can see that Separatism became the term of political phenomenon: The separatism has become to treat as the struggle of the province of some state or a political movement to achieve the autonomy or the political independence.


2.1 Spain. Catalonia and The Country of Basques

Today there is an impression of Spain into the social mind as of well- being country, entered into the group of states, that represents themselves as a cradle of European integration.  There is an impression, that Spain, despite of all difficulties of its historical development has finally obtained its national identity by the way of creation the new multistructural society from consisted regions and national formations, fortified in a whole part by tolerant, enlightened and authoritative monarchy. But the global economic crisis, started in 2008 had destroyed Spanish idyll, sharpening the old confrontations and creating new ones. 
Traditionally the painful problem of Spain was the presence of centrifugal forces, based on two main reasons: the first one is the manifestations of nationalism inherent to the regions where Catalonian, Basque- Navarre, Galician folks had been traditionally living; the second reason is the regionalism explained by aspiration of local elites to have more independence from Madrid.
Some Spanish intelligence believe that first symptoms and embryos of the phenomenons, that today we can consider as manifestations of nationalism, separatism and regionalism had emerged a lot before, at the pre- Romanian age. Obviously, those ancient times nobody could imagine that after ages some specific features of historical development of different Spanish regions would be determined as significant, even extreme difference of some of the others Iberian people. Despite of the fact of their neighborhood from time immemorial. But this, is the reality of our contradictory world, that today faced the necessarity of re-understanding of many truths, yesterday seemed to be the capital truths.
From the point of view of separatism, the Spain – is one of the most troublous states in Europe. There are two strong separatist’s movements inside of Spain- they are Basque and Catalonian movements, additionally, almost all of the rest regions are seeking to wider autonomy. The territory of that Kingdom divided onto 17 autonomy communities and there is an individual ethnos living on each territorial unit. The Spanish people are joking that there is no “Spanish people” because the country is completely consisting of different ethnical groups, that combined by territory. At the ancient times Spain was populated by Iberians and Celtic people, then it was colonized by Romanians. After that German tribes had entered to Spain. A numbers of Mediterranean folks had descended from mixing of those and others ethnical groups. This model of governmental- territorial organization had constantly stayed as an object of political struggle, significantly sharpened during last years. The ones political forces insist on keeping of the Country of autonomies with some possible changes, the others demand on turning into the federation, the thirds demand on turning into the confederation, the fourths are struggling on total independence of their territories.

2.4 Ukrainian separatism in action

The roots of Ukrainian separatism have its origins in the distant past. Today separatism in Ukraine remains important, unresolved issue, and has not even seeing the completion of open secessionist conflicts.
In 24 years of independent statehood of Ukraine managed to undergo many tests and challenges. Being ruled by the oligarchs and influenced by various clan structures, the political system is extremely deteriorated: long-term economic instability, social decline, political turmoil. The majority of these internal destabilizing factors caused the beginning of the Ukrainian crisis.
Considering Ukrainian separatism is necessary to highlight the presence of such a notion of separatism as a hidden separatism, that settled in political science practice. In the guise of Ukrainian separatism, there are certain kinds of separatism, such as: natural separatism (Crimean Tatar), separatism, unrecognized (Ruthenian), separatism "only true" (Galichinan) [61]. Often, in this context referred to terms such as "autonomy" and "federalization". Antiquity and the diversity of Ukrainian separatism eventually led to what is now seen open confrontation, civil war and political uncertainty over the entire territory of Ukraine.
A referendum held in Crimea (2014), and further accession to Russia had a long background, the beginning of which had the greatest impact in the first half of the 90s. It is in this part of Ukraine the concept of "separatism" and "autonomy" are intimately intertwined. The ethnic composition of the population of Crimea - the only region of Ukraine, which is not dominated by ethnic Ukrainians. Even more ethnic factor increased the complex and ambiguous demographic processes, in particular the deportation and return of the Crimean Tatars. The confluence of these circumstances, to a large extent determined the subsequent course of events. After the Ukraine quit from the USSR Russian Crimean population (representing the majority) faced two problems: a) the separation from Russia and b) the return of the Crimean Tatars on the peninsula with property claims. It started the movement of Russian population of Crimea to secede from Ukraine and join Russia. The ideas either autonomy or separation from Ukraine had considered by the population of the peninsula as a panacea for the economic and social turmoil.
The adoption of the Constitution of Ukraine and adoption by the Ukrainian Parliament of the ARC Constitution, completed the legal registration of the autonomous status of Crimea, as well as the signing of the Big Treaty with Russia in 1997, deaсtualized the problems of Crimean separatism.
The question of the Crimean branch has been newly updated in connection with the events of 2014, which resulted in a general referendum and annexation of Crimea by Russia, but Kiev's position remains inflexible and the current government of Ukraine and the EU do not recognize the referendum results, that leaves the question still open.